Coyote Voicings

Howls, Yips and other Vocalizations: A Panoply of Sounds & Situations

Illustration by Kanyon Sayers-Roods

COMMUNICATION by coyotes is one of my passionate interests, just as is their family life and social interactions. What I write here is based entirely on my own twelve years — now 14 years! — of hearing and documenting coyotes in their natural settings and in context. Coyote communication occurs mostly via eye contact, facial expressions and body language and it can be very subtle. Coyotes are not forever vocal as humans are; they tend to be on the quiet side — except when they aren’t!

I’m including a number of vocalization videos for you to hear. By carefully observing the contexts in which any vocalization occurs and knowing different coyote positions and relationships in the family, we can figure out why they were emitted and what meaning they have for other coyotes.  Their sounds do not constitute “a definite language” per-se, but consist more of emotional output — emotings — which can be easily read by other coyotes and by those of us who spend time listening to them in situ as they go about their social activities. Coyotes have intense family lives, so it’s the interpersonal communication/vocalizations which predominate. Family internal affairs are much more all-consuming than anything else going on in the ‘outside world’ for them: family life is what they live for. And each coyote — and by extension each coyote family — has its own unique variation on the general themes.

Yipping, howling, and any other vocalizations may be heard at any time of day or night — this is because coyotes themselves are diurnal animals, meaning they can be active at any time during a 24-hour day. How far off do you think you can hear a howl? I investigated this question in the post by that name — just click on it to read it. By the way, I have not encountered coyotes howling for no reason at all, and I have not encountered coyotes howling before or after a kill — yips and howling appear not to be an indication of an eminent attack on prey nor a celebration thereof.  Coyote “songs” can last for 20 minutes or longer.

Within their sing-songy yips and howls, they are able to produce a variety of tones, pitches, modulations, inflections — sometimes with warbles, lilts, crescendos and trills. They use their mouths, lips (at the sides) and tongues in addition to their vocal chords. The unique pattern combinations, lengths and use of these various articulations, can form signature howls for individual coyotes. In addition, their voices are probably as individually different as our own. They can be identified this way by other family members. Among the coyotes I know, I can distinguish who is howling in the distance because I’ve learned their individual howl patterns.

We don’t have terms for all of the sounds they emit as far as I know, and since they run in a continuum, and mostly meld together, it might be hard to break them down into exact discrete descriptive terms. Eskimos have 50 or so terms for snow to differentiate very relevant differences that they need to know. Further south on the continent, our terms for snow are limited to what is relevant to us: powder, icy, slush, new, wet, dry. The same might be said of coyote noises: barks, growls, howls and yips are the terms most of us apply to coyotes. However, there is much more that is relevant for them, and the examples below dip into this a little. Context is important — it determines the meaning of any vocalizations.

Why do coyotes yip, bark, or howl? What are the types of things they communicate verbally (remember that most coyote communication is quiet and through body language)? Warnings, hellos, happiness, joy, anger, distress disapproval, dislike, pain, their whereabouts are some of the things they express out-loud. I’ve heard a dad start yipping, apparently calling to his family, and then two of his pups respond but not the others. The two that responded had been close-by. They ran towards him and then all of them started yipping together — there had been no siren, and the other two family members — his mate and another adult pup — were not involved.

The area I have not had experience with is voice communication between individuals from different families. I know these individuals challenge each other vocally and respond to the challenges, and they even physically fight. I’ve seen the result of such a fight but I did not hear the vocalizations. If and when I do hear this, I will elaborate on it here. If anyone else has heard it and would like to comment about it, please do!!

Summarizing generally:

  • Their sounds range from raspy sounds, which include growls, snarls, hisses, and barks (see recordings 1, 2, 3). These communicate that they are upset or angry, or are used as warnings. When a high-pitched sound is urgent or intense, it fits into this “not very happy” category. . .
  • to sing-songy friendly howls, yips, whines, and squeals (see recordings 4, 5 and 6). These higher pitched and smoother sounds tend to be friendly, happy or contented sounds.
  • Use of lips & tongues allow modulations.
  • Their ability to create a variety of sounds often cause a few coyotes sound like many
  • Unique howl patterns identify each coyote. I can distinguish some in the distance.
  • AND I’ve never heard coyotes howl at a kill.

Before delving into some samples and a few situations, I want to elaborate on THREE COMMUNICATIONS which folks are most likely to hear. These are generalizations, within which there is infinite variety:

1 Howling/yipping along with sirens. One or more coyotes might be involved. If there are multiple coyotes, the variety of sounds produced by each coyote and the dissonances between them often makes it sound as though there are many more coyotes than there really are. Why do they howl with sirens? The speculative, likely explanation is that they are singing with and responding as if to other coyotes: sirens may sound like other coyotes — a friend from New Delhi once confused our sirens for the Jackals in India. When they respond to other coyotes in the distance, it appears to be to express/confirm both their unity with these non-family neighbor coyotes residing within earshot, and their territorial separateness from them (peaceful coexistence?!)

2 Social communication. The social communication in recordings #8 and #9 may, at first, sound a bit harsh due only to the coyote’s proximity to the microphone — but you’ll see that it is a peaceful communication with a gentle intention in its back-and-forth flow. Since here they precede a get-together before the evening activities, the immediate message is probably about that: “Hey, I’m ready” or “I’m coming”, and conveys their proximity to each other. Beyond that, the simple act of communicating confirms their unity as a pair, their well-being, and no doubt more about their mundane situation. It also (speculating again) may serve as a territorial message proclaiming ownership of the turf to other coyotes further off but within earshot, as explained above.

I have heard a father call out (no siren was involved) to which two yearling youngsters not only responded to him vocally, but came running towards him. Was he calling them? If so, why didn’t the three others come? Might howling serve as a sort of “roll call” for the family? I question this because all coyotes don’t always join in. There are always more questions than answers! One of my contacts heard howling which lasted all morning — 4 hours at least: several of us determined that this could have been a youngster calling for its mother who probably had been killed by a car or a bullet. :((

3 Distressed howling and barking due to intrusive dogs. This barking is intense. It happens as frequently as ‘howling with the sirens’ in the parks where I observe. Howling and yipping which results from having been chased by a dog is easy to recognize because it is very distressed and anguished sounding. An unusual example of this is  a three-year old loner I’ve been documenting: She regularly screams at, and follows, the dog who used to chase her — she does this to no other dogs, no matter how often they’ve chased her. That dog no longer chases her because she is kept leashed. The coyote appears to be aware that the dog is restrained. This behavior has gone on for over four years. The coyote appears to be standing up for herself and possibly for her territorial claim, against this dog who harassed her, even though a human is there, and even though the dog is over 100 pounds.

I used to think that the barking and howling which occurred after a dog chase might be a warning to other coyotes in the family group, but I have seen instances where this was definitely not the case. For example, a dominant coyote — the mother — was relaxing on a hilltop when one of her full-grown pups started a barking session not too far off — it had been disturbed by a dog. I immediately started watching for a change in the mother’s behavior, waiting for some type of reaction. There was none. This mother ignored the barking, even though I had previously seen her run to a pup’s defense when she saw a dog — a particular dog which she deemed dangerous — approach too close to one of the pups. In another case, I was on a hillside photographing one of these full-grown pups when I heard the mother barking in distress in the distance — it is a signature bark which I have come to recognize. The young coyote totally ignored the barking and continued its hunt!  Here, the yelps were not an alarm signal to others. This is what made me realize that vocalizations were emotive responses. I’ve observed that coyotes are feeling animals if nothing else: hear more about this from Carl Safina.



SOME EXAMPLES AND SITUATIONS (all from my fieldwork):

1) & 2) &3) A coyote’s distressed yelps due to the intrusion of a dog. This type of intense vocalization occurs when a coyote is anguished and upset. The first two videos show the exact same response by 2 different coyotes to the same situation, showing how different coyotes and their communication might be.  

[I plan to add a male’s voice to this group. BTW, I’ve noticed that some male coyote voices change after 1.5 or 1.8 years of age, to a lower range and more “barky”!]


4) & 5) & 5a) & 5b) Here are a couple of responses to sirens. High pitched yips can sound as though they are puppy noises, but they are adult vocalizations. All sorts of sounds, including grunts, barks and gnarls are woven into both. In the second video (5), a coyote who is not in view responds from the distance by baying. 5c two recently united coyotes howl to sirens in a united front.


6) Soulful baying is a more unusual response to sirens and here melds into a back and forth communication with another coyote. 


7) & 8) A family responds to sirens in the distance which morphs into shorter greeting yips in a rendezvous.  


9) A 4-month old youngster responds to his family in the distance.


10) & 11) Long-distance social communication between a mated pair. The first takes place during a calm afternoon:  more details about this video can be read above under “social communication.” The second video is more intense, at night, with the male barking in the foreground, and the female, sounding agitated further away.    


12), 13) & 14) 14a) Hisses and growls are depicted in these three videos. In the first, soft anger hisses/growls are used to say “get away from me”. In the second video, hissing and “almost” growling at a youngster imparts that Mom does not want any nonsense — pup acquiesces. In the third video, the female of a mated pair is trying to impose her will on her mate (apparently trying to keep him from grooming a youngster) who responds by moving away from her. In the fourth video (14a) Dad is reminding 10-month-old youngster who the boss is — listed to 1:24 thru 1:48.     


15) Growling and snarling accompany shoving and biting, while the youngster squeals of pain in this video depicting disciplinary and dispersal behavior . 


16) This recording begins as a family response to a siren. Then at about 1:36, as greetings and rank confirmations begin to take place, a youngster growls at another and THAT coyote is then pursued by two others who threaten her for her disruptive growl. She squeals as a preventative measure as they approach, warding off a possible bite from them! 


17) & 18) I’ve included two more videos to show how coyotes use mouth and lip movements in their vocalizations, and even tongue movements.    


19) To howl or not to howl is an indecisive wavering I see repeatedly: there is grunting which sometimes precedes a barking episode, as if the coyote were trying to decide whether or not to go ahead with it. 


20) Multi-tasking! After stealing the dead rat and playing with it, he walks off, intending to bury it where only he can find it. But sirens and howling from others begins and distracts him. So he multi-tasks: howling with the rat in his mouth. But not for long, the rat is more important. He goes to bury it, but again gets distracted: family activities win out, and the rat is abandoned.


21) & 22) Some howling can be pretty relaxed. In this first video a female is responding to her mate’s call while lying down: note her single high-pitched tone vs. her mate’s barking.  In the second video, rank issues and annoyance are dealt with along with howling..  


23) This coyote is following, and giving a tongue-lashing, to the dog who chased her long ago. She behaves this way towards this dog and no other. She is both angry at, and fearful of that dog as seen by her posture. She follows them (dog and owner) for maybe a football field’s length, sometimes complaining like in this video and sometimes not, then sits and watches them disappear over the horizon. Owner and leashed dog just keep walking on and away from her and, fortunately, are rather amused by the coyote’s behavior. This behavior has been going on for over half a year now.


24) Grunting with displeasure:


25) This lugubrious howl occurred after the male coyote went about an unusual frantic sniffing of his territory. He was following someone’s scent. Right after the recording he “kicked” the ground: he was angry. The day after the recording, I spotted an intruder female in his territory. So this howl is either a warning or an emission of internal discontent — the same as when coyotes howl after having been chased by a dog.


26) And here is an audio of social communication one evening: it’s two coyotes during their greeting session before heading off for the evening trekking: it sounds super-conversational, doesn’t it?  This one was recorded by Alicia Pollak 


27) Here is a video of a mother and father coyote with some of their 8-month-old offspring. Mom is vocalizing her desire to be left alone, and she even nips at her mate. The youngsters understand because they distance themselves. Dad stands by her side and is there to “second the motion”.


28) Mellow, Gentle, and Sweet Vocalizations — Her new companion is only a few feet away in each case. If you know coyote vocalizations, you’ll know right off that these are comfortable and affectionate reachings out for her new friend. The second one is in response to sirens. Compare these to some of the agitated, distressed vocalizations caused by being chased by dogs that I’ve posted.


29) Family extended conversation session at 6am in mid-February in the dark of the morning. This occurred AFTER sirens had sounded and they had already responded to that. There had been vocalizations even earlier but I don’t know for how long before. What is happening here is that three new coyotes have moved in to the territory. The alpha female from the old family had been there calling for her mate the previous night. I don’t know if it was the old family, or the new coyotes who were vocalizing in this recording. It was pitch dark outside.


30) Upset yearling coyote calls out to the rest of the family, but they aren’t around — you can hear the urgency in the call when no one answers.

 


© All information and photos in my postings come from my own original and first-hand documentation work which I am happy to share, with permission and with properly displayed credit: ©janetkessler/coyoteyipps.com.

[NOTE: This posting will be updated periodically with new voicings]

18 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Richard W Thompson
    Jan 17, 2018 @ 09:50:41

    Any chance you can help me with the meanings behind these coyote sounds that I routinely hear after every train blows its horn near Water Works Park in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio?

    VIDEO 1

    In the video above, what I’m most concerned with is the loud scream that comes in during the third set of howls. I often hear this specific coyote in the pack and wonder if he has something wrong, if it’s a specific vocalization of his, or if it’s just his voice in general. He’s one of the primary reasons I took such an interest in this exact pack above others. He sounds very unique. Plus, I’ve been a railroad fan for 15-20 years, going out day and night, and have never come across another spot where they go nuts at the train horns like this. It’s incredible.

    VIDEO 2

    In the video above, there are a number of different audio clips. At 1:17 and 2:19, do you know what kind of vocalization that is? It almost sounds like a cry, and if I’m not mistaken, it’s the same coyote who makes the screaming sound in the video above. At 3:54 (it’s real quiet so you’ll have to listen closely), you again hear the screaming (almost moaning) sound. I’m really, really fascinated by this coyote and want to know what his deal is. I’ve never heard a coyote sound like that one before.When I first discovered these guys at Water Works Park, he happened to be the very first coyote I heard make any sound. Naturally I was a bit freaked out, because he doesn’t even sound like a member of the canidae family at first listen. I thought it was a human or goat lol.

    Any help is VERY appreciated. Nobody seems to have answers to this. I have roughly 60 audio recordings of this exact pack of coyotes, and even more questions than what’s here, but I won’t bombard you.

    Thanks much!

    Reply

    • yipps:janetkessler
      Jan 17, 2018 @ 20:30:46

      Hi Richard —

      Thanks for sending these. The train noises increase the feeling of mystery in the recordings! I’m glad you’ve taken an interest in coyote voicings. Each coyote, you know, has his/her own unique and individual voice, and what you are hearing here, as far as I can tell, based on my own listening and recordings, is a variation of the same howl you are hearing from the others. This voice certainly serves as a unique identifying marker. Possibly it’s an *extreme* variation which could be due to the coyote’s physiology or some throat/voice-box trauma which makes him/her sound a bit more raspy. Coyotes are known for their eery sounds, which indeed can sound like a man crying in agony on his deathbed, or witches laughing as they stir their pots deep within the forest. All of the sounds in your videos are a response to the train whistle: just like sirens, coyotes respond to these. Beyond this, I have found that the *raspier* coyote vocalizations tend to convey anger or warnings. But without being there and watching the behavior, and knowing these coyotes and their temperaments, I would not go so far as to say this is what it is. Hope this is useful?? Janet

  2. Richard W Thompson
    Jan 19, 2018 @ 07:47:12

    Janet,

    Thank you very much for the timely reply and information. It does indeed help. I wish I could tell you more about this pack’s physiology and behavior, but unfortunately in the dozens upon dozens of times I’ve been here to get recordings, I’ve NEVER been able to see them. They’re only active at night, and are in a portion of the park that is fenced-off as a part of the town’s water supply. I have heard their sounds come from different directions outside of this restricted area, but it is always from deep within the woods at a very dark hour. Finding them has been a monumental challenge for me, but I keep trying because I really would like photos.

    By chance, do you have an email that I could message you at? I figure that may be easier than communicating back and forth on here. Plus, I’d like to share with you some more of my recordings, findings, and discoveries with this pack to get your opinion (as long as you don’t mind).

    I appreciate it all. Thanks much.
    Richard

    Reply

  3. Laura
    Oct 04, 2018 @ 04:34:43

    Incredibly insightful! My dog and I have encountered a coyote almost daily on our walk for months now. The vocalizations are very similar to the “disressed by a dog” audio you have provided. The animal usually shows itself as a means to attract the dog’s attention for a chase. This usually happens close to where my dog flushed out 3 pups this spring. The pups weren’t harmed but I wonder if this is still a parent on guard? Thank you for providing the benefit of your learning – it’s nice to learn more about our wild neighbours!

    Reply

    • yipps:janetkessler
      Oct 04, 2018 @ 04:41:53

      Hi Laura — Yes, the coyote is upset and wants your dog to stay away from that area. It might be a good idea, if you can and are willing, to leash your dog in that particular area and walk way, way around it? You could experiment to find out what distance stops producing the barking??

  4. Laura
    Oct 05, 2018 @ 01:52:44

    Yes – we’ll respect its space – thank you.

    Reply

  5. Jess
    Jun 09, 2019 @ 12:56:39

    Hi! My husband and I recently moved to a rural area- 22 acres of farm land and woods. We took a walk across the property, just out of the range of our floodlight to look at some stars. We heard what sounded like a grunting sneeze in the field and turned our flashlight in that direction where were met with 4 glowing green eyes! The animal made that huffing sneeze sound again and we backed away slowly toward the house to respect their space. Initially we thought it may have been a deer but the pair were only about 20 feet from us and too small to be a deer. They looked to be about dog size, but as it was so dark we didn’t get a great look. Does this sound like it could have been coyotes? We haven’t heard any yips, barks, or howls in the 3 weeks we have lived here so we weren’t too sure!

    Reply

    • yipps:janetkessler
      Jun 09, 2019 @ 15:27:14

      Hi Jess —

      Thanks for contacting me. Right off what came to mind is raccoons: I’ve seen raccoon eyes reflect green. When I’ve seen coyotes at night, their eyes have always reflected white. HOWEVER, if you go on line, you’ll find that canid eyes can reflect a variety of colors. Here’s a fun article: https://www.canidae.com/blog/2016/08/can-you-recognize-an-animal-at-night-by-its-reflective-eye-color/. So, although I can’t give you a definitive answer, I can suggest that you continue your investigation: keep taking your stargazing walks and keep watching! You are bound to see them, and other critters again, and this time try to increase your awareness of their size and types of movements they make. Have fun, and let me know what you find out! :)) Janet

  6. Kelly Tankersley
    Jan 14, 2020 @ 22:36:05

    The population of coyotes has grown over the years in the Hunters Point Shipyard and they are very vocal. There are no dogs confronting them and they pretty much have the area to themselves so all the vocalization is puzzling. Just last night I heard what sounded like a cat being attacked along with a chorus of yips and I ran out to find one coyote that was staring a me from about 50 yards away behind the fence. The coyotes here do not resemble ones I’ve seen in Bernal Heights. They are much larger and have distinctive two tone fur. There seems to be a lot of activity lately and you would think there has to be dozens of coyotes from all the noise they make. They seem to migrate from one area to the next within this area of connected open space so you see and hear them for a time then they disappear and you see and hear them across the water in candlestick or Tunnel road where they had been absent for a while. I was wondering if you knew about the population we have in this area of San Francisco? It’s hard to predict the future since the development of this area is ongoing and full of problems. They really have it made in this area because of all the isolated open space, plentiful prey and little, if any, human or dog interactions. I have been keeping a close eye on them and trying to deter them from venturing onto the streets or close to where people and pets will be. I have worried for years that they may be killing some of the feral cats in my area but so far that has never been proven. I believe they have somewhat of an understanding of what is their territory and what is not and just to drive it home, I go out of my way to scare them away when they venture outside of the fenced area and could pose a problem. I didn’t do that last night regrettably because like most people, you are struck by their beauty and want to observe them. I believe I asked it “what are you doing?” but seeing that he/she was on the right side of the fence where it belonged, I walked away. I should have yelled to scare it away and to enforce the idea that they should avoid anywhere humans will be.

    Reply

    • yipps:janetkessler
      Jan 15, 2020 @ 19:52:04

      Hi Kelly —

      First of all, remember that a few coyotes can SOUND like a whole bunch: coyotes can accomplish this feat because of the variety of sounds they make — this may account for all the sounds you are hearing. Also, pups are now adding to the chorus, and they will soon disperse. Note that a coyote’s chief rival/enemy will be other coyotes, not just dogs. A dog chasing a coyote usually causes ONE coyote to bark in distress, as far as I have seen. Coyotes are territorial: each territorial family needs minimally several hundred acres to more normally several square miles. If their territory is fragmented, as you say it is, they will move between the territories and mark them in order to keep other coyotes out. The youngsters, then, will disperse out of the city starting about now and continuing through the year, and you should be seeing/hearing fewer of them. I would love it if you would keep me updated on them! An ecologist has seen youngsters disperse South to, and in the direction of, Los Gatos.

      Coyotes at this time of year do look larger because of their heavy and fluffy fur which they’ll retain into the springtime when their fur will start shedding and they’ll APPEAR to look smaller in size. Also, at this time of year, with all the wet weather, they may appear darker.

      Coyotes do indeed grab free-roaming cats. But also, the feral cat colony might have moved if there are coyotes around. The problem here is with feeders: when feral cats are fed in pretty much the same spot, the feeder is luring both coyotes and cats to the area, and the coyotes might take advantage of the situation if they’re hungry, eating the cat food and maybe more.

      Their territory includes the neighborhoods, so scaring them away, as far as I have seen, will simply cause them to change the time when they do their trekking. The most important thing you can do for coyotes is never feed, never be friendly, and keep your distance: always walk away from them and KEEP moving away. If you can help get this information out to folks, you will be doing them a great favor.

      I hope this helps? Please keep me updated! And thank you for sharing your concerns AND observations! Janet

  7. David Hartley
    Mar 06, 2020 @ 15:01:10

    These writings and recordings are most wonderful indeed. You are gifted and highly valuable extension of the Coyotes world speaking to our human one.

    Reply

  8. Jared
    Jul 21, 2020 @ 05:38:51

    Hi! I really enjoyed this article! Thank you so much for your time and dedication to this. This helped me to identify the sounds of packs I’ve been hearing all my life in New England.

    Reply

  9. Lisa Febre
    Jul 29, 2020 @ 15:05:31

    Wonderful article and incredibly helpful. My dogs & I were followed by a coyote who was making vocalizations different from the ones I hear at night as they roam the neighborhood. This has helped me realize that we might have unwittingly passed too close to a den — the sounds the coyote was making were not threatening, nor was she being aggressive toward us (in fact, she started the episode by sneaking up behind us and sniffing one of my dogs). She kept with us for about 1/2 mile, more interested in shuttling us out of the area. For all my anxiety during the situation, it was always clear she was not aggressive. I had to stop a few times to regroup & untangle leashes, and when I did that she made a point of letting me know that I wasn’t moving fast enough for her.

    Believe it or not, this article has given me comfort that our encounter was not aggressive, but to protect a den. This happened in the last week of June, so it makes sense that it was the end of breeding season.

    Thank you!!

    Reply

    • yipps:janetkessler
      Jul 29, 2020 @ 17:17:00

      Hi Lisa — I’m so glad that you decided to find out about coyotes rather than harbor and then spread fears about them because of this experience. Their behaviors indeed are very understandable if we are willing to figure them out, and the protocol is so easy: move away from them and keep moving away. Thank you for your comment! Please be an ambassador for them by spreading what you know — coyotes need your help in this! Warmly, Janet

    • Lisa Febre
      Jul 29, 2020 @ 18:26:04

      Thank you Janet! There is *no*way* I could ever say anything negative about coyotes. I love them so much, sometimes it hurts. In fact, that coyote, when the encounter began, was actually trotting along next to me (as if she’d been on a leash, too) and my first thought was “when did I get 3 dogs??” LOL! I could’ve petted her…

      2 years ago, we had a dog attacked by a coyote in our backyard in the early morning hours. It was scary (and resulted in an expensive surgery) but even that didn’t dissuade me. I just love them, and whenever someone says something negative about coyotes, I try to help them understand why WE are the invasive species and instead of fighting them, we should revere them.

      I also believe in symbolism of animal experiences, so I am still sorting through what such a close encounter means in my life.

      Thank you! And I’m so happy I found your page!

    • yipps:janetkessler
      Jul 29, 2020 @ 18:56:04

      :))

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