Coyote Speaks Her Mind, An Update

I want to update the continuing story of the loner coyote I wrote about in: Coyote Speaks Her Mind to the Dog Who Chased Her Three Weeks Ago! The story through that posting evolved from a dog who repeatedly chased the coyote, to the coyote finally vocalizing her distress at being chased while remaining hidden in the bushes.

Soon thereafter, this coyote would follow that dog, which is now kept leashed, screaming out her anguish, now in plain view — no longer hidden in the bushes. For months this behavior continued, daily, and then the vocalizations stopped, but the following behavior still continued, always at a safe and great distance. 

One might ask, “Why would a little coyote follow a dog — even a large 100 pound dog — if she were fearful of the dog?  The answer appears to be that ‘following’ is used by coyotes both to escort out and to assure themselves that a threatening (or perceived as threatening) animal is leaving an area. It is a territorial behavior. Coyotes’ survival depends on their territoriality: they claim, and exclude other coyotes, from the land which will supply them with, and ensure them a supply of,  food and protection from competitors. The screaming, which incorporates deep raspy sounds, is a brave warning, more bluff than anything else, but also a release of the coyote’s distressed feelings. The coyote appears totally aware that the dog is tethered: she has fled like a bullet when the dog got loose and turned towards her.

The little coyote’s behavior towards that dog is continuing to evolve. Yesterday, after seeing the dog in the far distance, she simply ran the other way and disappeared from view over the crest of the hill before the dog had a chance to see her!

A few days ago, having seen the dog from a great distance, she ran off and hid rather than take a chance at being seen.

Crouching low the minute she saw the dog, in hopes of not being seen

And today, the little coyote didn’t notice the dog — the dog is walked daily in the park — until the dog already was close by. Her evasive strategy this time involved crouching down into the grasses and ducking so as not to be seen. She was not seen by the dog, but she was seen by the owner.  She remained in her crouched-down spot as the dog didn’t seem to notice her (the dog was leashed and couldn’t have moved towards the coyote even if she had wanted to). 

The coyote got up and watched them walk away and disappear over the horizon and then took after them, but remaining out of sight.  She spotted them at the crest of a hill where she sat and kept an eye on them from the distance until they left. This owner is doing as much as he can to avoid conflict by walking his dog on the leash and always walking away from the coyote. Fortunately, he is fascinated and amused by her behavior!

By the way, I have seen this same behavior in a number of females, and one male coyote — it’s not so unusual, so folks with dogs should be aware of it so they don’t freak out if it happens towards their dog. What to do? Simply shorten your leash and keep walking away from the coyote. Also, try to minimize visual communication between your dog and a coyote — the communication is most likely to be negative, so why even go there? Again, simply shorten your leash and walk on and away.

Responding to Recent Postings on Social Media: A Recap of Some Urban Coyote Behaviors and Some Explanations

This posting is a slightly revised and expanded version, with photos, of what was originally written for, and posted on, on May 27th.

our Bernal coyote at dawn

coyote at dawn

We have coyotes in most of our parks here in San Francisco, and most folks I’ve spoken with are thrilled about it!  Enjoy it and respect its wildness! At the same time, there are some people, especially pet owners, who are not so thrilled. Here is some information I’ve put together about coyotes, much of it based on my own observations, as a response to concerns and comments which have appeared in some of the social media recently. This is information that applies to urban coyotes everywhere, not just here in SF.


coyotes in our parks

coyotes in our parks

Most parks in San Francisco have one stable resident family, or a loner. Coyotes are not “pack” animals of unrelated individuals. Families “claim” territories which they “own” from which they exclude other coyotes — this is what keeps the population density down. They trek through the neighborhoods every night, during the early morning or early evening hours — and, more rarely, during the brightest hours of the day — marking their territories to keep other coyotes out and looking for hunting opportunities. Studies show that in urban areas, there is generally about one coyote per square mile — a family of 4 would require about 4 square miles. You will always be seeing the same individual coyotes in any particular area.

Although we have parks with loner coyotes, most parks have mated pairs with families. Coyotes mate for life, and both parents raise the young. Coyotes mate in January or February and produce young in April — births occur only once a year. 

The number of family members fluctuates up and down continually over time. In one park, it went something like this: 2-5-3-4-2. The fluctuation is due to new pups, and then to their dispersal or deaths. There is only about a 30% survival rate of pups during their first year — disease and nutritional issues take their toll.

When it’s time for youngsters to “disperse”, the parents will drive them out, or they may just pick-up-and-go. This usually occurs between one and two, and sometimes three years of age, and it occurs throughout the year — there is no “dispersal season”. However, the breeding adult pair will remain in the same territory over many years. Interestingly, wolves will actually kill their own kin in order to preserve their own statuses and territorial rights. I’ve not seen this in coyotes, but I have seen the altercations that drive coyotes out of their birth territories.

Cars are urban coyotes’ chief cause of death — please drive carefully! They often trek on our traffic grid — it’s often the “path of least resistance”.  A few days ago, in our Diamond Heights neighborhood, a car swerved right into someone’s house to avoid hitting a coyote during the early morning hours.


coyote shows her anxiety and displeasure with a dog by jumping up and down

coyote shows her anxiety and displeasure with a dog by jumping up and down

As the individuals in a family mature, some of them may go through phases of what might be called more “assertive”  or “insistent” behavior, such as: following or running in the direction of a dog. During pupping season, the assertiveness is strongest, with coyotes even approaching and possibly even nipping at a dog’s haunches. These are coyote “messaging” behaviors: coyotes want dogs to move on and to know the territory is taken. These behaviors don’t “define” a coyote, and they don’t last. Think of these as phases in a teenager’s life, or in a parent’s life — there’s an ebb and flow to behaviors for each coyote, often based on what is going on within the coyote’s individual family: Are there new pups? Is there increased sibling rivalry? Are parents having issues with the offspring, or trying to get one to disperse? I’ve seen no evidence to indicate that such behaviors build up towards more aggressiveness. Many of the more apparently “assertive” behaviors, both in juveniles and adults, are based solely on circumstances and happenstance encounters, so keep your distance.


trekking through the neighborhood

trekking through the neighborhood

A substantial increase in “sightings” doesn’t necessarily translate into a spike in the coyote population, though this is what many people assume. Again, increased sightings could be due to their current family dynamics which may cause individuals to wander farther afield.

Unusual weather conditions can have an effect on sightings. San Francisco has just been through a four-year drought. Drought conditions cause coyotes to hunt further afield and for longer hours. They become more visible to humans and more prone to incidents during these times when their activity overlaps with ours. It takes 8 full months for an ecosystem to recover from a drought.

Human changes to the environment, including new construction, will affect coyotes in an area. In San Francisco, coyotes may be lingering longer in neighborhoods recently, and therefore be seen more, because of the current program of thinning and eliminating dense and protective thickets in the parks, reducing coyotes’ normal secure habitat.  Stopping the destruction of the habitat, and compensating for the exceptional weather or drought in various ways until the ecosystem has recovered, both are steps that could be taken to reduce sightings, and possible dog/coyote encounters, and coyotes’ spending the past-twilight hours in neighborhoods.


feeding coyotes is not good

feeding coyotes is not good

Please don’t feed the coyotes. Feeding breaks down the barrier that keeps coyotes wild. If they become food conditioned  — which is different from “habituation” (see below) — problems could develop, including approaching people, which increases the chances for a negative incident to occur. Feeding them also encourages them to hang around yards where people don’t want them.

Coyotes are opportunistic eaters, which means they can eat almost anything, but their preference in San Francisco is for gophers, squirrels and voles, which they eat whole: they need the meat, muscle, bones, fur — all of it — to nourish themselves properly. They also eat fruit, nuts, bugs, weak or juvenile raccoons, skunks, opossums, and possibly snakes. They prefer their whole foods over human-made foods, but if that human food is available, they’ll try it. And they will eat the occasional cat or small dog if circumstances are right — they don’t know who is a pet and who isn’t. Don’t create the right circumstances that could add your pet to the food chain. Please protect your pets by not allowing them to roam free and by supervising them closely when out-of-doors.

As top predators to an area, coyotes have helped rebalance the environment: they control rodents and some mesopredators, such as opossums, skunks and raccoons.


a habituated coyote is not a dangerous coyote

a habituated coyote is not a dangerous coyote

Urban coyotes do not “fear” humans — that is an incorrect term. Rather they are “wary” of humans. This means that, although a coyote won’t flee lickety-split in fear when they see a human, they nonetheless will maintain distance and not approach us. And we, in turn, need to respect them and their wildness by keeping as far away from them as we can. “Habituation” is a normal progression in urban areas — you cannot prevent it because you cannot stop coyotes from seeing humans on a daily basis — they get used to seeing us. A habituated coyote is not a dangerous animal. In fact, the term “habituation” was first used to describe bears as being more dangerous if they got used to people and lost fear of us. This assumption has been turned on its head: scientists now know that bears who are habituated tend to ignore humans, whereas bears who have never seen humans become reactive. In Africa, to make gorillas less reactive to humans, for the tourist trade, people purposefully habituate them — they become less dangerous.

Coyotes also habituate to “hazing” tactics, which is why such tactics should not be used if a coyote is way out in left field. Scaring off a coyote should be used sparingly. It should be reserved for when a coyote has come too close to you. It is a useless tactic unless the coyote is closer than 50 or so feet to you, which generally delineates its critical distance for discomfort.

Note that “habituation” is different from “food conditioning”. When visibly feeding or hand-feeding a coyote, you are conditioning it to approach humans. Don’t feed coyotes.


suspicious coyote mother and a dog owner not being vigilant

suspicious coyote mother and a dog owner not being vigilant

Whereas coyotes don’t approach humans, dogs are a different story because of territorial issues and because of prey issues. In many ways, coyotes and dogs look alike, but coyotes and dogs are naturally antagonistic towards each other. Remember that coyotes keep other coyotes out of their territories. Coyotes are also both curious and suspicious of dogs: they may feel compelled to come in closer to investigate. Always supervise your pets to prevent incidents: the minute you see a coyote, leash and go in the other direction. Most dogs have a tendency to go chasing after coyotes. Please don’t allow your dog to do this.

coyote messaging a dog -- the dog should have been kept away from the coyote

coyote messaging a dog — the dog should have been kept away from the coyote

Coyotes have approached dogs. If they get too close, they could either grab a small dog or “message” a larger dog who the coyote considers a threat to its territory or its personal space. They can only do this when they get close enough. Don’t let them. You can prevent an incident by keeping your dog away from coyotes in the first place, by leashing when you see one, and by walking away from it. It’s no different than when you encounter a skunk with its tail up: keep your dog off of it, and move away from it. 

coyote following

coyote following

 IF, inadvertently or by surprise, a coyote gets too close, that is when to scare it off, otherwise just walk away without running: see

Coyotes may follow dogs to find out what the dog is doing and where it is going (they do the same to non-family coyotes). If you and your dog are moving away from the coyote, and away from any denning site, the coyote soon will no longer follow. If you don’t want the coyote to follow at all, toss a small stone in its direction (not at it), and/or approach it (but don’t get too close) using your own blatantly angry body language and angry yelling. Noise alone, or waving flailing arms, is not always effective in making a coyote move — something has to move  towards the coyote. And it isn’t going to help if you are too far away. You’ve got to get within the coyote’s critical distance — at most 50 feet — and you have to be assertive about it. Walking towards the coyote while slapping a newspaper viciously on your thigh works, but tossing stones towards it is probably more effective. However — and this is a very important “however” — if the coyote doesn’t budge, it is probably protecting a nearby den site. In this case, turn around and leave. Do not provoke an incident. See the above link in Bay Nature.

It’s always best to be proactive in keeping a coyote away. The minute you see a coyote, leash up and move away from it, and know how to shoo it off effectively if it comes closer to you than 50 feet.

Note that practically all scratches or bites by coyotes to humans are due to feeding the coyote, or to an owner getting him/herself between a coyote and a pet, so don’t do these things. And, never run from a coyote: this activity actually initiates the chase response in a coyote who may also nip at your heels. They also sometimes nip at car tires when the car is in motion. The phenomena is called “motion reactivity”.


Encounter: the dog chased the coyote and the coyote stood up for itself

Encounter: the dog chased the coyote and the coyote stood up for itself

Encounters CAN be scary if you are unprepared and don’t know what to expect or what to do. Please learn what coyotes are like, not what you think they “should” be like — for instance, that they don’t “fear” humans but are “wary” of them, and not that “coyotes should be heard and not seen”. By knowing their true normal behaviors, and by knowing what to do *IF* they approach your dog, you will be informed and you will not be so fearful. For starters, watch the video, Coyotes As Neighbors:, which will spell out normal coyote behavior and what you can do to keep coyotes away from a pet.


The number one method of managing coyotes for coexistence is through human education and human behavior modification: that is what this posting is trying to help with. These have been shown to be extremely effective. The City of San Francisco has been lax in putting out signs or getting educational material to folks. Some of us have been filling the void, getting material, information and guidelines out to people, but as individuals or as small organizations, we have not been able to reach everyone. Please visit for specific information, and

Many cities have coexistence policies — they all work when folks abide by the guidelines. BUT, as with car driving laws, even if you know them and follow them, there will be some fender-benders that might be frightening. We have fewer than 100 coyotes in the City; the number of dogs is in the 250,000s. There is bound to be an incident now and then.

The number of real coyote incidents in the City is not many. There have been less than a handful of dog fatalities by coyotes — all were unleashed small dogs in known coyote areas — all were preventable. There have been many incidents of people being frightened and reporting “attacks” on their dogs. Few if any of these attacks were reported on a questionnaire which would tease out what actually occurred. Instead, these incidents have been spelled out on the social media with warnings of doom that is awaiting us all.

Most of the sightings of coyotes have been reported as charming. But there have been some fearful encounters, and recently groups of dog owners in some of the parks have turned decidedly against them. Social media tends to perpetuate, spread and amplify the fears, and encounters are inevitably worded as deliberate “aggressive attacks”. For instance, recently, there was a report of an attempted “attack” on a dog at 5:30 in the morning. However, a lone coyote, who weighs 35 pounds, is not going to “attack” a 130 pound Mastiff… Coyotes may watch dogs, follow, or hurry in your direction for many reasons, including curiosity, or investigation. They may jump up and down because of anxiety. These are not “attacks”, nor are they “attempted attacks”. Hopefully, by learning about coyotes, we can diminish the very real feeling of fear which comes from not knowing what is going on.

a coyote standing on a pathway, watching

a coyote standing on a pathway, watching

Our Animal Care and Control Department has had many people report “aggressive” coyotes: but when questioned further, the majority of these reports were of a coyote just standing, or doing nothing but looking at the purported victim.

Two years ago I watched a man, straight faced, tell me that he had been frightened “out-of-his-wits” by a monster 100-pound coyote just a few moments before seeing me. He was visibly shaken. He hadn’t seen me watching the whole incident a little way down the path. The incident involved his dog chasing a coyote. The coyote turned around to face the dog. When the dog ran back to its owner, the coyote proceeded on to where it had been going. But the owner was left frightened, and justified his fright by saying it was a “monster 100-pound coyote”. If the dog had been leashed, the incident would not have happened. It happened in a park where everyone knows there are coyotes.

If you have questions, or if you want help with specific issues, please contact me or anyone at

Squawk! A Warning Call for All Forest Dwellers Within Earshot

In a forest there is always some animal that calls out warning alarms when they sense trouble or danger lurking in the area. The cries serve to broadcast alarm to all citizens of the forest within earshot. Other species besides just their own learn how to read these cries of alarm, including me! Among others, ravens, flickers and blue-jays send out cries of alarm.

And that’s how I found coyotes today. Hearing a blue-jay squawk obsessively, I thought a coyote might be around, and sure enough, I was right. I ran towards where the sound was coming from, where I found the jay single-mindedly belting out its “beware, beware” admonition. And then I spotted a coyote close by. The coyote hurried off a little distance when it saw me and then stopped on a rock to scratch himself. Within a minute another coyote joined him. They allowed me to watch them for a moment, and then one, and then the other, hurried off into the bushes.

The fun part was being summoned to what was going on by the especially distressed squawking of the blue jay, and being right about what the commotion was about!


Coyote Confronts Mountain Lion, by Charles Wood

A friend sent me a video link of a coyote and a mountain lion interacting this month at Whiting Ranch, Orange Country California. In the video, a mature male coyote vocalizes at a mountain lion. The mountain lion was probably passing through the coyote’s territory. The coyote barred the mountain lion from going down a road. My guess is that the coyote’s territory is along and down the road.

The coyote made a stand. It told the mountain lion that it had better not go farther down that road. The coyote told the mountain lion that he was tough, persistent, and that he would continue to make noise if the mountain lion stayed around. Stealthy mountain lions don’t like noisy coyotes broadcasting their movements to all the other animals in the area.

In the very last part of the video, after the mountain lion went into the brush, the coyote’s ears were full forward. It had a lock on the mountain lion and wanted to be sure it was still moving away. The coyote didn’t pursue the mountain lion because the mountain lion did what the coyote wanted. The mountain lion gave the coyote its space.

No Stealth When Ravens Are Present

Suddenly there was a commotion from the Ravens. I heard their loud cries of alarm — they often call out when they sense impending danger. I didn’t see anything, but I waited.  Sure enough two coyotes appeared on a hill — I knew it! I knew coyotes were the cause of all the unhappy Raven noise! They appeared to be trekking through — and that often is enough to cause alarm among the Ravens. The coyotes sat down and observed their surroundings. Then, one of them stood up, tensed up and became focused — I decided to aim my camera in that direction. The cawing continued, even though there was no activity that I could see — except the tension in the coyote, and the cawing of the Ravens.  So the three of us were tense: me, coyote, Ravens. And then, in my viewfinder, there appeared the part of the equation that was missing! Foiled by the Ravens?

Rottweiler Harasses Coyotes

I have seen the kind of activity in this video too often. Our Animal Care and Control Department, ACC, points out that some individuals continue to allow their dogs, “off-leash in active coyote areas despite education, posters, flyers, signs and barriers all warning dog owners to abide by the law and keep their dogs on-leash, or, better yet, avoid the marked areas entirely.”  So a few irresponsible individuals are setting themselves up for unexpected coyote encounters by not following the simple rules. The only method to keep coyotes and dogs apart is to leash the dog in a coyote area. If you and your dog see a coyote, walk in the opposite direction, not towards it.

We are lucky to have an Animal Care and Control Department which is taking a proactive stance to protect both our native coyotes and companion pets. ACC has recently cordoned off areas and instituted temporary park closures — they have been forced into doing this because a few dog owners continue to be irresponsible towards their pets and our wildlife, putting both at risk.

People have asked about “relocating” our coyotes — this is not an option since another coyote would just fill the vacant niche left behind, and relocation is a death sentence for any moved coyote. Coyotes are here to stay and the community needs to learn how to peacefully coexist with them. Ninety-nine percent of everyone I speak to loves having coyotes — a bit of the wild — in our urban parks. It brings back something that they’ve been out of touch with for too long. Note that it is only a few individuals who are irresponsible. Please be a responsible pet guardian: leash your dog in a coyote area or visit parks which do not display coyote warning signs. We only have ten coyotes in the city — it doesn’t take a lot of effort to coexist with them.


Two ravens followed this coyote, squawking angrily, and one swooped down right overhead — sky-bomb fashion — not touching the coyote, but coming very close. I missed getting a shot of that. Then the ravens settled in a nearby tree, but they continued to taunt the coyote. Ravens do not like coyotes to hang around their territories. Actually the harassment was pretty mild and didn’t last too long. People walked by on a path that was not at all far off, but no humans noticed Mr. Coyote here — no one except the angry Ravens.


I was first alerted that a coyote might be around by the shreaking caws of ravens close by — this was my first clue that a coyote was out and about, even though I had not seen one. It is interesting that both raven and human voices have alerted me to the presence of a coyote way before I actually saw it. In the case of humans, I have come to recognize the urgent and insistent yelling from all the way across a park  — it has always been someone unaccustomed to coyotes, with an unleashed dog, who was shooing off a coyote that had wandered in too close.

Upon hearing the caws, I looked around and sure enough, there was a lone coyote coming up a path. Aside from looking up at the ravens, the coyote pretty much ignored them. The coyote climbed up to a little knoll where it sat down — probably to enjoy a peaceful morning. Instead, the ravens who were perched in a nearby tree, began circling around and cawing insistently at the little coyote. They never got too close to the coyote, but they sure let their presence be known and their discontentment with the coyote being there. The coyote limited its activity to glancing up at them now and then.

I wondered in what way coyotes were a threat to ravens — why ravens needed to harass a coyote like this — why they felt a need to warn the coyote off.  I’ve seen Blue Jays also harass a coyote. Ravens are raptors which eat the same little voles that coyotes eat — there is competition for resources here.  As for the threat of  coyotes to Blue Jays? I’ve seen them both eat peanuts!! I’ve also seen little tiny Black-eyed Juncos harass a coyote — they just didn’t want the coyote around — the coyote was lying under their tree.  And I have seen squirrels tease, and angrily chatter and scold a coyote who lingered too long under a tree where they lived.

The Ravens tired of this activity before the coyote did — they left — and the coyote spent a little bit of peaceful time on that foggy morning atop that knoll in a park!

More Bugs

From a distance it looked as though this coyote was engaged in periodic bouts of snapping at an invisible or imaginary enemy. The enemy turned out to be real — bugs. Although it did not happen here, I’ve seen coyotes also use their front paws repeatedly to bat away and rub off mosquitos from their faces. When it is mosquitos, they are usually nibbling on me as well as the coyotes.


The wasp persisted, and so did the coyote in following its movements. I’m sure that if I could enlarge this photo enough, you would more clearly be able to see the standoff:  wasp and coyote eyeball to eyeball!!

Battle Of The Bugs

Bugs take on a coyote! I’ve seen coyotes battle mosquitos. Here it is wasps — you can actually see them in the photograph.

Various “Hellos” and “Gathering Her Flock”

Today I was watching two young coyotes hunt when I saw a dog and its owner in the distance come over a hill and down the path I was on. The coyotes have seen this calm dog and walker often, and normally wait back and watch them. But this time I was surprised that the two coyotes actually walked towards them, as if to greet them!! At about 80 feet the walker stopped to watch, at which point the coyotes went off the trail to hunt, and to watch back. When the walker and her dog proceeded on her walk, the coyotes got in FRONT of them, appearing to “lead” the way back to where they had been when they first saw the walker. I’ve seen this “leading from in front” before. The young coyotes seemed to have been communicating “So pleased to see you!”

This is when the third coyote showed up — the two young ones were way ahead of us now. This third coyote is a dominant female and the mother of the young ones. She has always “greeted” this benign, easy-going dog with a warning display consisting of a direct, steely-eyed gaze, and a hunched-over, snarly expression, often while pawing at the ground. There’s nothing lackluster about this greeting: it was noticed, even though the walker and dog did not alter their behavior except to stop for just a moment — they walked on.  I was now with the walker in back of the younger coyotes, and maybe the mom thought we were “following” them.  Her greeting lasted only a few seconds. Then, as I have seen before, this mother coyote seemed to “gather” her two young ones to lead them off or head them “home”  for the day:  she was “gathering her flock”.  The walker continued on, the young coyotes disappeared into the underbrush, and the matronly mom remained back, sitting atop a rock for a few more minutes before slithering away herself. The mother coyote seemed to be communicating: “I’m doing my job, be forwarned!”

In contrast, a few days ago I was watching these same two young coyotes as they hunted quietly off to the side of a path. There was no mom around that time. The peacefulness of the scene ended when a group of loud voices could be heard approaching.  At the same time, a dog came running up the trail after the two young coyotes. The two coyotes ran together to the top of a hill where they turned around, tense as rubber bands, and watched intently for further action. Interestingly, the dog didn’t continue to pursue the coyotes. Rather, he seemed happy having “swept the path clean of coyotes”. The coyotes stayed where they were until the group of walkers could be seen visually, and then they disappeared. This particular group of walkers had already proved itself antagonistic towards these coyotes and the coyotes knew to remain out of sight. Here the message from the dog was “Git”, and from the coyotes: “Okay, we’ll go.”

Crows and Ravens

Crows and ravens are quite similar and quite different. Both are extremely intelligent birds — they have been known to use tools! Crows tend to like urban settings whereas ravens prefer more natural settings. Ravens weigh about four times more than crows and have a wingspan of almost 4 feet versus 2.5 for the crow. Crows caw whereas ravens tend to croak! Tail feathers in flight are more diamond-shaped for a raven, with a slight point, whereas for a crow the configuration of the tail feathers is more of a fan-shape: more rounded or even flat at the tip of the tail. The beaks of ravens are much more robust than that of crows. And, ravens have more vocal ability: a friend today told me that all was quiet as he was taking photos of ravens, and then the ravens began mimicking the click of his camera!!  Both are raptors, which means they do eat prey among other things. They eat rodents, carrion, berries, refuse. They are scavengers. These birds will sometimes work as a team: two are more effective than one.  So, for instance, I often see crows pursuing and attacking a red-tail hawk. A red-tail hawk is a larger bird, but the crows work in pairs or even more — their advantage in such a situation is that there are more of them. I don’t think a red-tail has ever really been “hurt” by these attacks. Rather, the crows are driving the hawks away from their main haunts — they are protecting their territorial hunting areas from competition. Maybe they are also protecting their young ones and eggs. The birds depicted on this posting are ravens.

This is a common scenario. Ravens and crows treat coyotes in the same manner and for the same reasons. Coyotes (the dominant alpha ones) treat dogs in the same manner and for the same reasons. Humans treat coyotes and other humans (think of the immigration issue) in the same manner — and that is how it goes.

However, I’ve also read about a symbiotic relationship between crows and coyotes. I’ve seen ravens and coyotes together in various of our parks now. Competition between ravens and coyotes can be understood because they eat the same stuff: rodents, carrion, berries, refuse. They are both scavengers. Yet, I’ve read where they can work together, too. Ravens know how and when to take advantage of other animals to help them bum a meal they couldn’t get on their own. They might wait for a coyote to catch a larger rodent, say a skunk, which they will finish off after the coyote has gone. In Yellowstone, bison that have not survived the severe winter attract the coyotes, whose teeth and  jaws can rip open the tough, frozen hides — making the meat accessible to watchful ravens. Ravens also have followed wild wolf packs to a kill; even flying ahead of the wolves to lead them to prey!

Over the past few weeks I’ve become aware of ravens croaking loudly for 20 minutes or so. This has always been from a particular grove of several trees. I wondered what kind of “party” they might be having!! Several times I walked over, but by then the croaking had ceased.

Then today, I finally saw why these ravens were carrying on so. They were attempting to drive out a little coyote who was hunting in their area — the same as I’ve seen them drive out the red-tail hawks. The ravens were following the coyote and croaking loudly. The coyote kept looking up at them and stayed close to low-lying overhead branches for protection. At one point this coyote approached an open area away from the raven area. This area bordered on a path, and when people passed by, the coyote re-entered the bosque again. Coyotes are very edgy around people and dogs and most will avoid them if at all possible. I’ve added photos above of the little coyote hiding behind a tree, hiding behind some brush, running off from various dog and human situations. And there is a photo of a young coyote hunting — this is, of course, why they are out in the first place. This is the first day I have ever seen a coyote actually rip open a garbage bag. The coyote was hungry and that is why it was out.

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